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    An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiattio
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    배송비 주문금액별 차등 (무료)
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      Providing a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of atmospheric radiation and their practical applications, this book discusses solar radiation at different atmospheric levels, thermal infrared radiation, light scattering by atmospheric particulates, the principles of radiative transfer, remote sensing, and the relationship between radiation and climate. Appendices cover the Planck function, the Schrodinger wave equation, spiracle geometry, the Lorentz- Lorenz formula, the Legendre polynomials and addition theorem, useful constants, and standard atmospheric profiles. Liou teaches atmospheric sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

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      Prefacep. xiii
      Fundamentals of Radiation for Atmospheric Applications
      Concepts, Definitions, and Unitsp. 1
      Electromagnetic Spectrump. 1
      Solid Anglep. 2
      Basic Radiometric Quantitiesp. 4
      Concepts of Scattering and Absorptionp. 6
      Blackbody Radiation Lawsp. 9
      Planck's Lawp. 10
      Stefan-Boltzmann Lawp. 11
      Wien's Displacement Lawp. 12
      Kirchhoff's Lawp. 13
      Absorption Line Formation and Line Shapep. 14
      Line Formationp. 14
      Bohr's Modelp. 14
      Vibrational and Rotational Transitionsp. 16
      Line Broadeningp. 21
      Pressure Broadeningp. 21
      Doppler Broadeningp. 23
      Voigt Profilep. 24
      Breakdown of Thermodynamic Equilibriump. 25
      Introduction to Radiative Transferp. 27
      The Equation of Radiative Transferp. 27
      Beer-Bouguer-Lambert Lawp. 28
      Schwarzschild's Equation and Its Solutionp. 29
      The Equation of Radiative Transfer for Plane-Parallel Atmospheresp. 31
      Radiative Transfer Equations for Three-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Mediap. 33
      Exercisesp. 34
      Suggested Readingp. 36
      Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere
      The Sun as an Energy Sourcep. 37
      The Structure of the Sunp. 39
      Solar Surface Activity: Sunspotsp. 41
      The Earth's Orbit about the Sun and Solar Insolationp. 44
      Orbital Geometryp. 44
      Definition of the Solar Constantp. 50
      Distribution of Solar Insolationp. 51
      Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant Determinationp. 54
      Solar Spectrump. 54
      Determination of the Solar Constant: Ground-Based Methodp. 57
      Satellite Measurements of the Solar Constantp. 60
      Exercisesp. 62
      Suggested Readingp. 64
      Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere
      Composition and Structure of the Earth's Atmospherep. 65
      Thermal Structurep. 65
      Chemical Compositionp. 67
      Atmospheric Absorptionp. 70
      Absorption in the Ultravioletp. 73
      Molecular Nitrogenp. 73
      Molecular Oxygenp. 73
      Ozonep. 75
      Other Minor Gasesp. 75
      Absorption of Solar Radiationp. 75
      Photochemical Processes and the Formation of Ozone Layersp. 79
      Absorption in the Visible and Near Infraredp. 82
      Molecular Oxygen and Ozonep. 82
      Water Vaporp. 83
      Carbon Dioxidep. 83
      Other Minor Gasesp. 84
      Transfer of Direct Solar Flux in the Atmospherep. 84
      Atmospheric Scatteringp. 87
      Rayleigh Scatteringp. 87
      Theoretical Developmentp. 87
      Phase Function, Scattering Cross Section, and Polarizabilityp. 90
      Blue Sky and Sky Polarizationp. 93
      Light Scattering by Particulates: Approximationsp. 96
      Lorenz-Mie Scatteringp. 96
      Geometric Opticsp. 97
      Anomalous Diffraction Theoryp. 100
      Multiple Scattering and Absorption in Planetary Atmospheresp. 102
      Fundamentals of Radiative Transferp. 102
      Approximations of Radiative Transferp. 105
      Single-Scattering Approximationp. 105
      Diffusion Approximationp. 106
      Atmospheric Solar Heating Ratesp. 107
      Exercisesp. 111
      Suggested Readingp. 114
      Thermal Infrared Radiation Transfer in the Atmosphere
      The Thermal Infrared Spectrum and the Greenhouse Effectp. 116
      Absorption and Emission in the Atmospherep. 118
      Absorption in the Thermal Infraredp. 118
      Water Vaporp. 118
      Carbon Dioxidep. 119
      Ozonep. 120
      Methanep. 121
      Nitrous Oxidep. 121
      Chlorofluorocarbonsp. 121
      Fundamentals of Thermal Infrared Radiative Transferp. 122
      Line-by-Line (LBL) Integrationp. 125
      Correlated K-Distribution Method for Infrared Radiative Transferp. 127
      Fundamentalsp. 127
      Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheresp. 128
      Numerical Procedures and Pertinent Resultsp. 132
      Line Overlap Considerationp. 135
      Band Modelsp. 137
      A Single Linep. 137
      Regular Band Modelp. 139
      Statistical Band Modelp. 141
      Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheresp. 144
      Broadband Approaches to Flux Computationsp. 148
      Broadband Emissivityp. 148
      Newtonian Cooling Approximationp. 150
      Infrared Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheresp. 152
      Fundamentalsp. 152
      Exchange of Infrared Radiation between Cloud and Surfacep. 154
      Two/Four-Stream Approximationp. 157
      Atmospheric Infrared Cooling Ratesp. 160
      Exercisesp. 165
      Suggested Readingp. 168
      Light Scattering by Atmospheric Particulates
      Morphology of Atmospheric Particulatesp. 169
      Lorenz-Mie Theory of Light Scattering by Spherical Particlesp. 176
      Electromagnetic Wave Equation and Solutionp. 176
      Formal Scattering Solutionp. 182
      The Far-Field Solution and Extinction Parametersp. 186
      Scattering Phase Matrix for Spherical Particlesp. 191
      Geometric Opticsp. 195
      Diffractionp. 196
      Geometric Reflection and Refractionp. 200
      Geometric Optics, Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Representative Resultsp. 209
      Light Scattering by Ice Crystals: A Unified Theoryp. 215
      Geometric Optics for Ice Crystalsp. 215
      Conventional Approachp. 215
      Improved Geometric Optics Approachp. 217
      Absorption Effects in Geometric Opticsp. 219
      Monte Carlo Method for Ray Tracingp. 222
      Introduction to the Finite-Difference Time Domain Methodp. 224
      Scattering Phase Matrix for Nonspherical Ice Particlesp. 225
      Presentation of a Unified Theory for Light Scattering by Ice Crystalsp. 228
      The Essence of the Unified Theoryp. 228
      Theory versus Measurement and Representative Resultsp. 231
      Light Scattering by Nonspherical Aerosolsp. 235
      Finite-Difference Time Domain Methodp. 237
      T-Matrix Methodp. 246
      Note on Light-Scattering Measurements for Nonspherical Aerosolsp. 249
      Exercisesp. 252
      Suggested Readingp. 255
      Principles of Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres
      Introductionp. 257
      A Brief History of Radiative Transferp. 257
      Basic Equations for the Plane-Parallel Conditionp. 258
      Discrete-Ordinates Method for Radiative Transferp. 261
      General Solution for Isotropic Scatteringp. 262
      The Law of Diffuse Reflection for Semi-infinite Isotropic Scattering Atmospheresp. 265
      General Solution for Anisotropic Scatteringp. 267
      Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheresp. 270
      Principles of Invariancep. 274
      Definitions of Scattering Parametersp. 274
      Principles of Invariance for Semi-infinite Atmospheresp. 277
      Principles of Invariance for Finite Atmospheresp. 280
      The X and Y Functionsp. 285
      Inclusion of Surface Reflectionp. 287
      Adding Method for Radiative Transferp. 290
      Definitions of Physical Parametersp. 290
      Adding Equationsp. 292
      Equivalence of the Adding Method and the Principles of Invariancep. 295
      Extension to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres for Internal Fieldsp. 297
      Similarity between the Adding and Discrete-Ordinates Methodsp. 299
      Approximations for Radiative Transferp. 302
      Successive-Orders-of-Scattering Approximationp. 302
      Two-Stream and Eddington's Approximationsp. 303
      Delta-Function Adjustment and Similarity Principlep. 310
      Four-Stream Approximationp. 313
      Radiative Transfer Including Polarizationp. 317
      Representation of a Light Beamp. 317
      Formulationp. 322
      Advanced Topics in Radiative Transferp. 325
      Horizontally Oriented Ice Particlesp. 325
      Three-Dimensional Nonhomogeneous Cloudsp. 329
      Monte Carlo Methodp. 332
      Successive-Orders-of-Scattering (SOS) Approachp. 334
      Delta Four-Term (Diffusion) Approximationp. 337
      Spherical Atmospheresp. 339
      Exercisesp. 343
      Suggested Readingp. 347
      Application of Radiative Transfer Principles to Remote Sensing
      Introductionp. 348
      Remote Sensing Using Transmitted Sunlightp. 350
      Determination of Aerosol Optical Depth and Size Distributionp. 351
      Direct Linear Inversionp. 355
      Constrained Linear Inversionp. 357
      Determination of Total Ozone Concentrationp. 358
      Limb Extinction Techniquep. 360
      Remote Sensing Using Reflected Sunlightp. 361
      Satellite-Sun Geometry and Theoretical Foundationp. 361
      Satellite Remote Sensing of Ozonep. 366
      Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosolsp. 367
      Satellite Remote Sensing of Land Surfacesp. 369
      Cloud Optical Depth and Particle Sizep. 370
      Bidirectional Reflectancep. 371
      Polarizationp. 377
      Reflected Line Spectrump. 379
      Remote Sensing Using Emitted Infrared Radiationp. 383
      Theoretical Foundationp. 383
      Surface Temperature Determinationp. 385
      Remote Sensing of Temperature Profilesp. 387
      Nonlinear Iteration Methodp. 391
      Minimum Variance Method: Hybrid Retrievalp. 392
      Cloud Removalp. 396
      Remote Sensing of Water Vapor and Trace Gas Profilesp. 398
      Water Vapor from the 6.3 [mu]m Vibrational-Rotational Bandp. 398
      Limb Scanning Techniquep. 399
      Infrared Remote Sensing of Cloudsp. 403
      Carbon Dioxide Slicing Technique for Cloud Top Pressure and Emissivityp. 403
      Emitted Radiance for Cloud Coverp. 406
      Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth and Temperaturep. 406
      Information Content in Infrared Line Spectrump. 408
      Remote Sensing of Infrared Cooling Rate and Surface Fluxp. 409
      Remote Sensing Using Emitted Microwave Radiationp. 414
      Microwave Spectrum and Microwave Radiative Transferp. 414
      Rainfall Rate and Water Vapor Determination from Microwave Emissionp. 419
      Temperature Retrieval from Microwave Soundersp. 423
      Remote Sensing Using Laser and Microwave Energyp. 427
      Backscattering Equation: Theoretical Foundationp. 427
      Lidar Differential Absorption and Depolarization Techniquesp. 430
      Differential Absorption Techniquep. 430
      Principle of Depolarizationp. 431
      Millimeter-Wave Radar for Cloud Studyp. 434
      Exercisesp. 436
      Suggested Readingp. 441
      Radiation and Climate
      Introductionp. 442
      Radiation Budget of the Earth-Atmosphere Systemp. 444
      Observational Considerationsp. 444
      Black and White Sensors Based on Radiative Equilibriump. 445
      Scanning Radiometer and Angular Modelsp. 447
      Radiation Budget Viewed from Spacep. 449
      Cloud Radiative Forcing Derived from ERB Datap. 451
      Radiative Heating/Cooling Rates of the Atmospherep. 454
      Radiation Budget at the Surfacep. 458
      Radiative and Convective Atmospheresp. 459
      Radiative Equilibriump. 459
      A Global Modelp. 459
      A Vertical Modelp. 462
      Radiative and Convective Equilibriump. 464
      Heat Budget of the Earth-Atmosphere Systemp. 464
      Convective Adjustmentp. 466
      Radiation in One-Dimensional Climate Modelsp. 469
      Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effectsp. 469
      Ozone and Other Greenhouse Gasesp. 472
      Ozonep. 472
      Methanep. 473
      Nitrous Oxidep. 474
      Halocarbonsp. 475
      Radiation Feedback Considerationp. 475
      Aerosols and Radiationp. 477
      Cloud Radiative Forcingp. 480
      Cloud Position and Coverp. 480
      Cloud Microphysicsp. 481
      Aerosols/Clouds and Precipitationp. 483
      Radiation in Energy Balance Climate Modelsp. 485
      Energy Budget of the Atmosphere and the Surfacep. 485
      Atmosphere and Oceansp. 485
      Surface Energy Budgetp. 489
      Radiative Forcing in Energy Balance Climate Modelsp. 491
      Linear Heating Approachp. 492
      Diffusion Approachp. 495
      Solar Insolation Perturbationp. 497
      Radiation in Global Climate Modelsp. 499
      An Introduction to General Circulation Modelingp. 499
      Cloud Radiative Forcing in Global Climate Modelsp. 503
      Internal Radiative Forcingp. 504
      Greenhouse Warming and Cloud Cover Feedbackp. 505
      Greenhouse Warming and Cloud Liquid/Ice Water Content Feedbackp. 507
      Cloud Particle Size Feedbackp. 510
      Direct Radiative Forcing: Aerosols and Contrailsp. 510
      Aerosolsp. 511
      Contrailsp. 513
      Radiation in El Nino-Southern Oscillationp. 514
      Exercisesp. 516
      Suggested Readingp. 520
      Derivation of the Planck Functionp. 523
      The Schrodinger Wave Equationp. 525
      Spherical Geometryp. 527
      Complex Index of Refraction, Dispersion of Light, and Lorentz-Lorenz Formulap. 529
      Properties of the Legendre Polynomials and Addition Theoremp. 533
      Some Useful Constantsp. 536
      Standard Atmospheric Profilesp. 537
      Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 538
      Referencesp. 543
      Indexp. 557
      Previous Volumes in International Geophysics Seriesp. 579
      Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

       










      An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiattio